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CBD produces effects through several molecular pathways. Although CBD does not actually bind to cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, it acts through several channels independent of the receptor. CBD improves and inhibits the binding action of certain protein-coupled receptors.
Some of the receptor systems in the brain and their relationship to CBD.
CBD targets a specific serotonin receptor, the serotonin 1A receptor. Its affinity with this receptor is associated with many of the therapeutic properties of CBD.
Note that serotonin receptors regulate the release of hormones such as cortisol, which is responsible for metabolism and stress reactions, and oxytocin, which It affects social behaviour. Serotonin receptors also affect a person’s mood, cognition, and appetite.
The increased activation of serotonin 1A receptors supports the theory of how CBD prevents certain problems and disorders such as neuropathic pain, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and nausea of chemotherapy.
CBD binds to TRPV1 receptors (vanilloid receptors), to achieve a therapeutic effect. As an ion channel, TRPV1 plays a role in thermoregulation (regulation of temperature), inflammation and pain perception.
Orphan receiversGPR55, “orphan receiver” because researchers are still not sure if it belongs to a larger family of receptor families. It is involved in the process of modulating blood pressure, bone resorption and bone density.
When it is hyperactive, GPR55 can cause osteoporosis. GPR55 also contributes to the multiplication and migration of cancer cells. CBD blocks the GPR55 signalling. This could affect the likelihood of cancer cell proliferation under the right conditions.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), also known as “nuclear receptors,” activated by CBD to produce an anticancer effect. They are on the surface of the nucleus of the cell. When a receptor known as PPAR-gamma´s activated, an anti-proliferative effect begins. Its activation also causes tumors to regress in lung cancer cell lines.